Optimisation of Photometric Stereo Methods by Non-convex Variational Minimisation


Estimating shape and appearance of a three-dimensional object from a given set of images is a classic research topic that is still actively pursued. Among the various techniques available, photometric stereo is distinguished by the assumption that the underlying input images are taken from the same point of view but under different lighting conditions. The most common techniques are conceptually close to the classic photometric stereo problem, meaning that the modelling encompasses a linearisation step and that the shape information is computed in terms of surface normals. In this work, instead of linearising we aim to stick to the original formulation of the photometric stereo problem, and we propose to minimise a much more natural objective function, namely the reprojection error in terms of depth. Minimising the resulting non-trivial variational model for photometric stereo allows to recover the depth of the photographed scene directly. As a solving strategy, we follow an approach based on a recently published optimisation scheme for non-convex and non-smooth cost functions. The main contributions of our paper are of theoretical nature. A technical novelty in our framework is the usage of matrix differential calculus. We supplement our approach by a detailed convergence analysis of the resulting optimisation algorithm and discuss possibilities to ease the computational complexity. At hand of an experimental evaluation we discuss important properties of the method. Overall, our strategy achieves more accurate results than other approaches that rely on the classic photometric stereo assumptions. The experiments also highlight some practical aspects of the underlying optimisation algorithm that may be of interest in a more general context.